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1802 Agreement in Sri Lanka

During the famous Napoleonic Wars, fearing that French control of the Netherlands meant that Sri Lanka would be a French colony, the British took control of the country in 1796 with little difficulty and automatically named “Zeylan” to “Ceylon”. In 1802, the Treaty of Ameins temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Dutch part of the island was bequeathed to the British, meaning that the island became an official colony of the British crown. In 1803, the British invaded the Kingdom of Kandy in the 1st Kandyan War. In 1815, the 2nd Kandyan War led to the end of Sri Lanka`s independence. The conquest of Sri Lanka by the British East India Company, which the British called Ceylon, took place during the Wars of the French Revolution (1792-1801). When the Netherlands came under French control, the British began to move from India to Sri Lanka. The Dutch abandoned the island after a timid resistance in 1796. The British had considered the conquest temporary and administered the island from Madras (Chennai) in southern India. However, the war with France revealed the strategic value of Sri Lanka, and the British decided to make their influence on the island permanent.

In 1802, Ceylon was declared a crown colony, and the Treaty of Amiens with France confirmed British ownership of maritime Ceylon. While peace negotiations were underway in Europe in 1796, the British assumed that Sri Lanka would eventually be returned to the Dutch. By 1797, however, London had decided to keep the island as British property. The government forced the British East India Company to participate in the administration of the island and guaranteed the company a commercial monopoly, especially the cinnamon trade that was moderately profitable but no longer robust. The governor of the island was responsible for law and order, but financial and commercial matters were under the control of the director of the East India Company. This system of “double control” lasted from 1798 to 1802. After the Dutch officially ceded the island to the British in the Treaty of Amiens in 1801, Sri Lanka became the first colony of the crown of Great Britain. It was in 1669 that the Dutch seriously attacked but reached an agreement (which was ignored by both sides), and it was not until 1656 that Colombo fell. Until 1660, the Dutch controlled the entire island except for the Kingdom of Kandy.

The Dutch (who were Protestants) persecuted Catholics (the remaining Portuguese settlers), but left Buddhists, Hindus, and Muslims alone. However, they taxed people much more than the Portuguese. A mixed Dutch-Sri Lankan people, known as the citizen people, is the heir to Dutch rule. Rajasinghe II, the king of Kandy, concluded a treaty with the Dutch in 1638 to get rid of the Portuguese, who ruled most of the coastal areas of the island. The main terms of the treaty were that the Dutch were to hand over the coastal areas they had conquered to the King of Kandyan in exchange for a Dutch trade monopoly on the island. The agreement was violated by both sides. The Dutch conquered Colombo in 1656 and the last Portuguese fortresses near Jaffnapatnam in 1658. Until 1660, they controlled the entire island except for the inner kingdom of Kandy. The Dutch (Protestants) persecuted the remaining Catholics and Portuguese settlers, but left buddhists, Hindus and Muslims alone. The Dutch imposed much higher taxes on the people than the Portuguese. [Citation needed] North was not just a figurehead and was annoyed by the interference of the East India Company. He was able to use his influence in Britain to get the government to end the dual system and declared Ceylon a crown colony in 1802, when Holland officially ceded the island to Britain by the Treaty of Amiens.

He created a public service, the first under the Eastern Crown, with postal, surveying, auditing, education, and medical departments. An outstanding linguist – he spoke French, Spanish, German, Russian, Italian and Greek – he made mastery of the local language a prerequisite for promotion. During the Napoleonic Wars, fearing that French control of the Netherlands would cede Sri Lanka to the French, Britain occupied the coastal areas of the island (which they called Ceylon) with little difficulty in 1796. In 1802, the Treaty of Amiens officially ceded the Dutch part of the island to Great Britain and it became a Crown colony. In 1803, the British invaded the Kandy Kingdom during the First Kandyan War, but were repulsed. In 1815, Kandy was occupied during the Second Kandyan War, which eventually ended Sri Lanka`s independence. The Vannimai, also called Vanni Nadu, were feudal land divisions ruled by Vanniar chiefs south of the Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka. Pandara Vanniyan allied with the Kandy Nayakars and led a rebellion against the British and Dutch colonial powers in Sri Lanka in 1802.

He was able to liberate Mullaitivu and other parts of northern Vanni from Dutch rule. In 1803, Pandara Vanniyan was defeated by the British and Vanni came under British rule. [36] The Group`s activities intensified in the second half of 1987 following the agreement between India and Sri Lanka. The prospect of Tamil autonomy in the north and the presence of Indian troops fueled a wave of Sinhala nationalism and a sudden increase in violence against the government. In 1987, a new group emerged that was an offshoot of the JVP – the Patriotic Liberation Organization (Deshapremi Janatha Viyaparaya – DJV). The DJV claimed responsibility for the assassinations of the president and prime minister in August 1987. In addition, the group launched a campaign of intimidation against the ruling party, killing more than seventy MPs between July and November. Sinhala leader Don Stephen Senanayake left the CNC on the issue of independence and disagreed with the revised goal of “obtaining freedom,” although its true reasons are more subtle. [45] He founded the United National Party (UNP) in 1946 when a new constitution was adopted based on lobbying by the Soulbury Commission behind the curtain. In the 1947 elections, the UNP won a minority of seats in parliament, but cobbled together a coalition with Solomon Bandaranaike`s Sinhalese Maha Sabha party and G.G. Ponnambalam`s Tamil Congress.

The successful inclusions of Tamil community leader Ponnambalam and his Sinhalese counterpart Bandaranaike were a remarkable exercise in political balance on Senanayake`s part. The vacuum in Tamil nationalist politics created by Ponnamblam`s transition to a moderate opened the door to tamil Arasu Kachchi (“Federal Party”), a Tamil sovereignist party led by H.J.V. Chelvanaykam, the son of a Christian minister`s lawyer. In 1669, the British captain Robert Knox accidentally landed on Ceylon and was captured by the King of Kandy. .

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